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  1. 10 diseases that are caused by water pollution and what you can do!
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  3. Water related ocular diseases - ScienceDirect

Cattle faeces appear to be the primary source of Cryptosporidium, although these parasites have also been found in humans and other animals. Drinking water sources become contaminated when faeces containing the parasites are deposited or flushed into water.

If treatment is inadequate, drinking water may contain sufficient numbers of parasites to cause illness. Other sources include direct exposure to the faeces of infected humans and animals, eating contaminated food, and accidental ingestion of contaminated recreational water. Anyone can get Giardiasis. Persons more likely to become infected include international travellers, backpackers, hikers, campers who drink unfiltered or untreated water, people who swallow water from contaminated sources, people who drink from shallow wells and swimmers who swallow water while swimming in lakes, rivers, ponds and streams.

Several community-wide outbreaks of giardiasis have been linked to drinking municipal water or recreational water contaminated with Giardia. Low levels of both parasites, especially Giardia, were detected in a national survey of drinking water conducted by Health Canada. Only a small fraction of the parasites appeared to be viable and their ability to infect humans was not determined.

10 diseases that are caused by water pollution and what you can do!

Nevertheless, outbreaks of illness linked to these parasites in drinking water have been reported in several provinces. Vomiting, chills, headache, and fever may also occur. These symptoms usually surface six to 16 days after the initial contact and can continue as long as one month. The symptoms of cryptosporidiosis are similar; the most common include watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and headaches. These symptoms occur within two to 25 days of infection and usually last one or two weeks; in some cases they persist for up to a month.

Dysentery kills as many as , people worldwide every year.

Most victims live in developing areas with poor sanitation, but sporadic cases do present around the world. The causative organism is frequently found in water polluted with human faeces, and is transmitted via the faecal-oral route. The possible causative agents include a parasitic amoeba called Entamoeba histolytica or a number of bacteria, including salmonella and shigella. An infection of E. Infections of shigella bacteria, called shigellosis, can lead to bacillary dysentery.


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Every year, bacillary dysentery kills roughly six times as many people as amoebic dysentery does. The E. Large outbreaks of bacillary dysentery have occurred in communities where sewage mixes with drinking water. Amoebic dysentery is transmitted by contaminated water, and is well known as travelers dysentery because of its prevalence in developing nations, although it is occasionally seen in industrialized countries. An estimated 18, cases of shigellosis occur annually in the United States. Infants, the elderly, and the infirm are susceptible to the severest symptoms of disease, but all humans are susceptible to some degree.

Bacillary dysentery causes small, frequent stools mixed with blood and mucus. Cramps are common, and a patient may occasionally strain painfully, without success, to evacuate the bowels. Symptoms may range from mild abdominal discomfort to full-blown dysentery characterised by cramps, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, blood, pus, or mucus in stools or tenesmus. Onset time is 12 to 50 hours.

There are many different kinds of Salmonella bacteria, and they are spread through human or animal feces. Salmonella lives in the intestines of many animals including chickens, cows, pigs, sheep, and pets such as dogs, cats, chicks, ducklings, turtles, tortoises, snakes and iguanas. Salmonella is found in every region of the United States and throughout the world. Millions of germs can be released in a bowel movement of an infected human or animal.

Drinking water can be contaminated when humans, and wild or domestic animals leave their droppings in or near surface water sources such as springs, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds or shallow wells. Salmonella may be found in water sources that have been contaminated with the feces of infected humans or animals. Waste can enter the water through various ways, including sewage overflows, polluted storm water runoff, and agricultural runoff.

Other common sources of infection are undercooked poultry and other meats, undercooked eggs and egg products, unpasteurized milk, and other contaminated food and water. Dehydration can also occur, most notably in infants. Sometimes a person can be infected and have no symptoms. In general, symptoms last 4 to 7 days and most people recover without treatment. When the infection is in the blood, it can be serious with potentially fatal outcomes, requiring hospitalization and treatment with antibiotics.

People at most risk from a Salmonella infection include infants, young children, the elderly and the immune compromised. Most strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, this strain, OH7, produces a powerful toxin that can cause severe illness. The bacteria can be found on a small number of cattle farms and can live in the intestines of healthy cattle. Eating meat, especially ground beef, that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill E.

Other known modes of infection include: Eating contaminated sprouts, lettuce, or salami; Drinking unpasteurized milk or juice; Swimming in or drinking sewage-contaminated water. Millions of germs can be released in a bowel movement from an infected human or animal.

Usually there is little or no fever, and the illness goes away in days. In some persons, particularly children under 5 years of age and the elderly, the infection can also cause a complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome HUS , which causes kidney failure. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans.

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Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S. Typhi in their feces stool. You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S.

Typhi or if sewage contaminated with S. Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Therefore, typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where handwashing is less frequent and water is likely to be contaminated with sewage. Once S. And in our bedrooms, the persistent, whiny hum of their buzzing wings can wake the soundest of sleepers. Mosquito-borne diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide every year with a disproportionate effect on children and the elderly in developing countries. There are more than 3, species of mosquitoes, but the members of three bear primary responsibility for the spread of human diseases.


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Anopheles mosquitoes are the only species known to carry malaria. They also transmit filariasis also called elephantiasis and encephalitis. Culex mosquitoes carry encephalitis, filariasis, and the West Nile virus. And Aedes mosquitoes, of which the voracious Asian tiger is a member, carry yellow fever, dengue, and encephalitis.

Water related ocular diseases - ScienceDirect

Mosquitoes transmit disease in a variety of ways. In the case of malaria, parasites attach themselves to the gut of a female mosquito and enter a host as she feeds. Mosquitoes use exhaled carbon dioxide, body odors and temperature, and movement to home in on their victims. Only female mosquitoes have the mouth parts necessary for sucking blood.

When biting with their proboscis, they stab two tubes into the skin: one to inject an enzyme that inhibits blood clotting; the other to suck blood into their bodies. They use the blood not for their own nourishment but as a source of protein for their eggs.

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